Korn C, Akam T, Jensen KH, Vagnoni C, Huber A, Tunbridge EM*, Walton ME* (2019). Distinct roles for DAT and COMT in regulating dopamine transients and reward-guided decision making. (*, co-senior authors).

Jahn CI, Varazzani C, Sallet J, Walton ME, Bouret S (2019). Noradrenergic but not dopaminergic neurons signal task state changes and predict re-engagement after a failure.


Werlen E, Shin SL, Gastambide F, Francois J, Tricklebank MD, Marston HM, Huxter JR, Gilmour G, Walton ME (in press). Amphetamine disrupts haemodynamic correlates of prediction errors in nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology [biorXiv]

Lippert RN, Cremer AL, Thanarajah SE, Korn C, Jahans-Price T, Burgeno LM, Tittgemeyer M, Bruening JC, Walton ME & Backes H (2019). Time-dependent assessment of stimulus-evoked regional dopamine release. Nat Commun. 10(1): 336 [full text]

Akam T, Walton ME (2019). pyPhotometry: Open source Python based hardware and software for fiber photometry data acquisition. Scientific Reports 9(1):3521 [full text]

Walton ME, Bouret S (2019). What is the relationship between dopamine and effort? Trends Neurosci 42(2):79-91 [full text]


Jahn CI, Gilardeau S, Varazzani C, Blain B, Sallet J, Walton ME, Bouret S (2018).  Dual contributions of noradrenaline to behavioural flexibility and motivation.  Psychopharmacology, 235: 2687-2702. [full text]


Vyazovskiy VV, Walton ME, Peirson SN, Bannerman DM (2017).  Sleep homeostasis, habits and habituation.  Curr Opin Neurobiol. 44: 202-211.  [full text]

Iodice P, Ferrante C, Brunetti L, Cabib S, Protasi F, Walton ME, Pezzulo G (2017).  Fatigue modulates dopamine availability and promotes flexible choice reversals during decision making.  Scientific Reports 7, 535  [full text]


Syed EC, Grima LL, Magill PJ, Bogacz R, Brown P, Walton ME (2016).  Action initiation shapes mesolimbic coding of future rewards.  Nature Neuroscience, 19: 34-6.  (Featured article, with commentary by Collins & Frank.  Faculty of 1000 “Recommended” article)  [full text]

Chakraborty S, Kolling N, Walton ME*, Mitchell AM* (2016).  Critical role for the mediodorsal thalamus in permitting rapid reward-guided updating in stochastic environments.  eLife (*, co-senior authors).  [full text]

Papageorgiou GK, Baudonnat M, Cucca F, Walton ME.  (2016).  Mesolimbic dopamine encodes prediction errors in a state-dependent manner.  Cell Reports, 15: 221-8.  [full text]

Jocham G, Brodersen KH, Constantinescu AO, Kahn MC, Ianni AM, Walton ME, Rushworth MF, Behrens TE (2016).  Reward-guided learning with and without causal attribution.  Neuron, 90: 177-90.  [full text]


Chau BK, Sallet J, Papageorgiou GK, Noonan MP, Bell AH, Walton ME, Rushworth MF (2015) Contrasting roles for orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala in credit assignment and learning in macaques.  Neuron, 87: 1106-18.  [full text]

Gilmour G, Gastembide F, Marston H, Walton ME (2015).  Using intermediate cognitive endpoints to facilitate translational research in psychosis.  Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 4: 128-135.  [full text]

Walton ME, Chau BK, Kennerley SW (2015).  Prioritising the relevant information for learning and decision making within orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.  Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 1: 78-85.  [full text]


Hollon N, Arnold MM, Gan JO, Walton ME, Phillips PE (2014).  Dopamine-associated cached values are not sufficient as the basis for action selection.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111: 18352-67.  [full text]

Chau BK, Kolling N, Hunt LT, Walton ME, Rushworth MF (2014).  A neural mechanism underlying failure of optimal choice with multiple alternatives. Nature Neuroscience, 17: 463-470.  [full text]

Croxson PL, Walton ME, Boorman ED, Rushworth MF, Bannerman DM (2014).  Unilateral medial frontal cortex lesions cause a cognitive decision-making deficit in rats.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 40: 3757-65.  [full text]

Barkus C, Sanderson DJ, Rawlins JN, Walton ME, Harrison PJ, Bannerman DM (2014).  What causes aberrant salience in schizophrenia?  A role for impaired short-term habituation and the GRIA1 (GluA1) AMPA receptor subunit.  Molecular Psychiatry 19: 1060-70.  [full text]

Hayden BY, Walton ME (2014).  Neuroscience of foragingFrontiers in Neuroscience, 8: 81.  [full text]


Baudonnat M, Huber A, David V, Walton ME (2013). Heads for learning, tails for memory: reward, reinforcement and a role for dopamine in determining behavioural relevance across multiple timescales.  Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7: 175.  [full text]


Tunbridge EM, Huber A, Farrell SM, Stumpenhorst K, Harrison PJ, Walton ME (2012).  The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in reward processing and addiction.  CNS Neurological Disorders Drug Targets 11: 306-23.  [full text]

Dayan P, Walton ME (2012).  A step-by-step guide to dopamine.  Biological Psychiatry, 71: 842-3.

Noonan MP, Kolling N, Walton ME, Rushworth MF (2012).  Re-evaluating the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in reward and reinforcement.  European Journal of Neuroscience, 35: 997-1010.


Walton ME, Behrens TE, Noonan MP, Rushworth MF (2011).  Giving credit where credit is due: Orbitofrontal cortex and valuation in an uncertain world.  Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1239:14-24.  [full text]

Kennerley SW, Walton ME (2011). Decision-making and reward in frontal cortex: complementary evidence from neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies.  Behavioral Neuroscience, 125: 297-317.  [full text]

Rushworth MF, Noonan MP, Boorman ED, Walton ME, Behrens TE (2011).  Frontal cortex and reward-guided learning and decision-making.  Neuron, 70: 1054-69.  [full text]


Walton ME*, Behrens TE*, Rudebeck PH, Baxter MG, Buckley MJ, Rushworth MF (2010).  Separable learning systems in the macaque brain and the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in contingent learning. Neuron 65: 927-39.  (*,both authors contributed equally to this work). (Featured article, with commentary by Seo & Lee. Faculty of 1000 “Must Read” article).  [full text]

Gan JO*, Walton ME*, Phillips PE (2010).  Differential encoding of costs and future rewards by nucleus accumbens dopamine.  Nature Neuroscience 13: 25-7. (*, both authors contributed equally to this work).  [full text]

Noonan MP, Walton ME, Behrens TE, Sallet J, Buckley MJ, Rushworth MF (2010). Separate value comparison and learning mechanisms in macaque medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107: 20547-20552.  [full text]

Selected publications from 2009 and earlier

Croxson PL*, Walton ME*, O’Reilly JX, Behrens TEJ, Rushworth MFS (2009). Effort-based cost-benefit valuation and the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 29: 4531-41.  (*,both authors contributed equally to this work).  (Faculty of 1000 “Recommended” article).  [full text]

Walton ME, Groves J, Jennings KA, Croxson PL, Sharp T, Rushworth MFS, Bannerman DM. (2009).  Comparing the role of the anterior cingulate cortex and 6-hydroxydopamine nucleus accumbens lesions on operant effort-based decision making.  Eur J Neurosci. 29(8): 1678-91

Rudebeck, Behrens TE, Kennerley SW, Baxter MG, Buckley MJ, Walton ME, Rushworth MF (2008).  Frontal cortex subregions play distinct roles in choices between actions and stimuli.  Journal of Neuroscience, 28: 13775-85.

Phillips PEM, Walton ME, Jhou TC (2007).  Calculating utility: preclinical evidence for cost-benefit analysis by mesolimbic dopamine.  Psychopharmacology, 191: 483-95.

Behrens TEJ, Woolrich MW, Walton ME, & Rushworth MFS (2007).  Learning the value of information in an uncertain world.  Nature Neuroscience. 10, 1214-1221.

Walton ME, Croxson PL, Behrens TE, Kennerley SW, Rushworth MF (2007).  Adaptive decision making and value in the anterior cingulate cortex.  Neuroimage, 36 Suppl2: T142-54.

Walton ME, Rudebeck PH, Bannerman DM, Rushworth MFS (2007).  Calculating the cost of acting in frontal cortex.  Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1104: 340-56.

Rushworth MF, Behrens TE, Rudebeck PH, Walton ME (2007).  Contrasting roles for cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex in decisions and social behaviour.  Trends in Cognitive Science, 11: 168-76.

Walton ME, Kennerley SW, Bannerman DM, Phillips PE, & Rushworth MFS (2006). Weighing up the benefits of work: Behavioral and neural analyses of effort-related decision making.  Neural Networks, 19: 1302-1314.  (One of the top 10 cited articles in Neural Networks, 2006-2010).

Rudebeck PH, Buckley MJ, Walton ME, Rushworth MFS (2006).  A role for the macaque anterior cingulate gyrus in social valuation.  Science, 313: 1310-1312.  (Faculty of 1000 “Recommended” article).

Rudebeck PH, Walton ME, Smyth AN, Bannerman DM, Rushworth MFS (2006).  Separate neural pathways process different decision costs.  Nature Neuroscience, 9: 1161-1168.

Kennerley SW, Walton ME, Behrens TE, Buckley MJ, Rushworth MFS (2006).  Optimal decision making and the anterior cingulate cortex.  Nature Neuroscience, 9: 940-947.

Walton ME, Croxson PL, Rushworth MFS, Bannerman DM (2005). The mesocortical dopamine projection to anterior cingulate cortex plays no role in guiding effort-related decisions.  Behavioral Neuroscience, 119: 323-328.

Denk F, Walton ME, Jennings KA, Sharp T, Rushworth MFS, Bannerman DM (2005). Differential involvement of serotonin and dopamine systems in cost-benefit decisions about delay or effort. Psychopharmacology, 179: 587-596.

Walton ME, Devlin JT, Rushworth MFS (2004).  Interactions between decision making and feedback monitoring within prefrontal cortex.  Nature Neuroscience, 7: 1259-1265.  (Featured article, with commentary by Ullsperger & Von Cramon.  Faculty of 1000 “Recommended” article).

Walton ME, Bannerman DM, Alterescu K, Rushworth MFS (2003). Functional specialization within medial frontal cortex of the anterior cingulate for evaluating effort-related decisions.  Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 6475-6490.

Walton ME, Bannerman DM, Rushworth MFS (2002).  The role of rat medial frontal cortex in effort-based decision making.  Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 10996-11003.